HTML Tutorial 101 – Web Development

In this article, we are starting our HTML tutorial from scratch.

What is HTML?

HTML stands for HyperText Markup LanguageHTML describes the structure of a Web page. It is the standard markup language use for creating Web pages. HTML consists of a list of elements, and the elements tell the browser how to display the content

HTML elements are represented by tags which content such as “heading”, “paragraph”, “table”, and so on. Any Browsers do not display the HTML tags directly but use them to give the page’s content.

Different versions of HTML:

YearVersions
1993HTML1.0
1995HTML2.0
1997HTML3.2
1999HTML4.1
2000XHTML1.0
2008HTML5 (PUBLIC DRAFT)
2012HTML5(LIVING STANDARD)
2014HTML5
2016HTML5.1
2017HTML5.1 2Nd edition
2017HTML 5.2

This tutorial follows the latest HTML5 edition.

The tutorial will cover:

In this HTML tutorial series will cover all the essential and necessary part of HTML, including the idea of elements and attributes, way of formatting the text using HTML tags, the methods of adding the style information to the document, the technique of inserting images, and tables, creating lists and forms as well as a way of including the other HTML documents[ inside the current document, and so on.

In the Basic, Advanced, and HTML5 new elements part, we are going to cover the following headings:

The basic part of the tutorial:

Introduction
Getting Started
Elements Attributes
Headings
Paragraphs
Links
Text Formatting
Styles
Images
Tables
Lists
Form
Layout

The content HTML Advanced and HTML5 new elements will be continued another part of this tutorial.

Introduction of HTML5:

HTML5 is the latest version of HTML. HTML is developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) organization. With time the web pages and web applications grow more complex, therefore W3C updates HTML standards. HTML5 introduces a host of semantic elements. Now, what are Semantic elements in HTML5?

HTML5 semantic tags are defined as the purpose of the element. By using semantic markup, which helps the browser understand the meaning of the content instead of just displaying it? By providing this extra level of clarity, the HTML5 semantic elements also help search engines to read the page and find the necessary information faster.

let’s Get Start now:

Here, you will know how to create an HTML document or a web page in a very easy way. To start coding with HTML, we need only two stuff: a simple text editor (Notepad, Notepad++, Brackets) and a web browser(like Chrome, IE, etc.).

Well, let’s begin with creating our first HTML page.

Creating Your First HTML Document

Now we will make an HTML file that displays the ” Hello world ” message in your web browser.

Step 1: Creating the HTML file

Open up your computer’s plain text editor or (notepad++, brackets) and create a new file.

Step 2: Type some HTML code

Start with an empty window and type the following code:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head><title> this is my first code document</title></head>
<body>
<p>Hello world!!</p>
</body>
</html>

Step 3: Saving the file

Now save the file on our desktop as “myfirsthtmlpage.html. “
Note: It is essential that the extension .html is specified — some text editors, such as Notepad++ or simple Notepad, will automatically save it as .txt otherwise.

To open the file in a browser. You have to navigate to your file then double click on it. It will be open in your default Web browser. If it does not, open your browser and drag the file to it.

Explanation of Tags mentions in the above code.

  1. The tag must always be present in the first on an HTML page and which tells the browser about the version of the language is used.
  2. The and tags say the browser where the HTML code starts and ends.
  3. And tags contain information about the web site, for example, style, meta-tags, scripts, etc.…
  4. The and tags indicate the browser about the page title name. The title can be seen by recognized the tab in the internet browser. The text that is defined between these tags is also the text that is used as a title by the search engines when they present the pages in the results of a search.
  5. The page’s content is placed between the and tags, which is displayed in the browser.
  6. The p element (<P>) tells the browser that a group of text is a paragraph.

HTML Elements

An HTML element usually consists of two tags: one start tag and other end tags, with the content inserted in between:

<tagname>Content goes here…</tagname>

The HTML element is everything from the start tag to the end tag, for example:

<p>This is paragraph.</p>

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Note: All the elements don’t require the end tag or closing tag to be present. These are referred to as empty elementsself-closing elements, or void elements. As for example :<br> tag.

Nested HTML Elements

We can nest elements within other elements in an HTML document. This helps define the structure of the page. Just make sure the tags close from the inside-most part first.

The below-mentioned example shows some of the elements nested inside the <p> element.

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head><title> this is first code document</title></head>
<body>
<p>Hello world!!</p><br>
<p>nested <b>blod</b> element</p>
</body>
</html>

Writing Comments in HTML

Comments are generally added to make the source code easier to understand, which helps others to understand what you were trying to do.

The comment section of HTML begins with

<!-- This is an HTML comment section -- >
<!-- This is a multi-line HTML comment section -- >
<p>This is a example of comment.</p>

HTML Elements Types

html tutorial

The HTML Elements can be placed in two separate groups: block-level elements and inline-level elements. 

The most commonly used HTML block-level elements are <div><p><h1> through <h6><form><ol><ul><li>, And so on. Whereas, some generally common used HTML inline elements are <img><a><span><strong>, <b>, <em>, <i>, <code>, <button>, <input>, And so on.

We will discuss these elements in detail in upcoming articles.

HTML Attributes

  • All HTML elements can have attributes.
  • They provide additional information about a component or element and are always defined in the start tag.
  • The HTML Attributes usually come in name/value pairs like name= ”value”

The HTML href Attribute

The HTML links define with the tag. The link address specifies in the href attribute:

<a href="https://technicalblog.in">This is a link</a>

The HTML src Attribute

The HTML images are denoted with the tag in the Code.

The filename of the image source is defined in the src attribute:

Example:

<img src="img_girl.jpg">

The width and height Attributes

 The HTML images also have width and height attributes, which specifies the width and height of the image:

Example:

<img src="img_girl.jpg" width="500" height="600">

The HTML’s alt Attribute

The alt attribute defines an alternative text to be used if an image cannot be displayed.

The alt attribute value is read by screen readers. This way, someone “listening” to the webpage, e.g., a vision-impaired person, can “hear” the element.

<img src="img_girl.jpg" alt="Girl with a white jacket">

The style Attribute

The style attribute uses to specify the styling of an element, like color, font, size, etc.

<p style="color:blue">This is a blue paragraph.</p>

The Lang Attribute

Text’s Language of the document can be declared in the tag. Declaring a language is essential for accessibility applications (screen readers) and search engines:

<p lang="fr">Ceci est un paragraphe.</p>

The title Attribute

Here, a title attribute is added to the <p> element. The value of the title attribute will be displayed as a tooltip when you mouse over the paragraph:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
  <title>HTML Elements</title>
</head>
<body>

<h1>This is a heading</h1>
<p>This is a paragraph.</p>

</body>
</html>

HTML Headings

The headings help us in defining the hierarchy and the structure of the web page content.

HTML offers six levels of heading tags, <h1> through <h6>; the higher heading level number, the greater its importance — therefore <h1> tag defines the most crucial heading, whereas the<h6> tag defines the least essential header in the document.

<h1>Heading 1</h1>
 <h2>Heading 2</h2> 
<h3>Heading 3</h3>
 <h4>Heading 4</h4>  
<h5>Heading 5</h5> 
<h6>Heading 6</h6>

HTML Paragraphs

The HTML <p> element defines a paragraph:

<p>This is my paragraph</p>

Like Paragraphs some other tags which is used in HTML:

TagDescription
<p>Defines a paragraph
<br>Inserts  a single line break
<pre>Defines pre-formatted text

Check out the previous article on introduction of Web Development.

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